The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Ordinance was promulgated by the Government of India on 16.10.1971 under which except the captive mines of TISCO and IISCO, the management of all coking coal mines was taken over by the Government. A new company called Bharat Coking Coal Limited was formed as a subsidiary company of Steel Authority of India Limited to manage the taken over mines. These mines were subsequently nationalised w.e.f. 1.5.1972. Later on the management of 711 coal mines was also taken over by the Government with effect from 31.1.1973 and they were nationalised w.e.f. 1.5.1973 and a new Government Company namely, Coal Mines Authority Limited (CMAL) with headquarters at Calcutta, was set up by the Government in May, 1973 to manage non-coking coal mines. The CMAL was organised as a unitary structure on divisional pattern with four Divisions, the Central Division, the Eastern Division, the Western Division and the CMPDI. The mines of erstwhile National Coal Development Corporation were brought under the Central Division of the CMAL. In September, 1975 CIL was formed as a Holding Company with five subsidiaries namely Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), Central Coalfields Limited (CCL ), Eastern Coalfields Limited ( ECL ), Western Coalfields Limited ( WCL ) and Central Mine Planning and Design Institute  ( CMPDI ).

In view of the projected increase in production and investment contemplated for CCL and WCL group of coal mines and in view of their extensive geographical spread resulting in day to day administrative, technical and communication problems etc. two more coal companies, namely, Northern Coalfields Limited and South Eastern Coalfields Limited were formed w.e.f. 28.11.1985.

Considering the prospects of Orissa Coalfields, being the growth centre for the VIII and IX Plan periods, a new coal company was formed bifurcating South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL). The new company Mahanadi Coalfields Limited was incorporated on 3rd April, 1992 with its headquarters at Sambalpur ( Orissa ) as fully owned subsidiary of Coal India Limited to manage the Talcher and IB-Valley Coalfields in Orissa.

CIL have now 8 subsidiaries viz. Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), Central Coalfields Limited (CCL), Eastern Coalfields Limited (ECL), Western Coalfields Limited (WCL), South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL), Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL), Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL) and Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI). The CMPDI is an engineering, design and exploration company set up for preparing perspective plan(s), rendering consultancy services and undertaking exploration and drilling work to establish coal reserves in the country and collection of detailed data for preparation of projects for actual mining. The other seven subsidiaries of CIL are coal producing companies.

CIL and its subsidiaries are incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 and are wholly owned by the Central Government. The coal mines in Assam and its neighbouring areas are controlled directly by CIL under the unit North Eastern Coalfields.


The Department of Coal has under its administrative control the Neyveli Lignite Corporation India Limited, with registered office at Chennai and corporate office at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu. The company is engaged in exploitation and excavation of lignite, generation of thermal power and also sale of raw lignite.


SCCL is a joint undertaking of Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Government of India. The equity capital is shared in the ratio of roughly 51:49 between Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Central Government respectively. The headquarters of the company is at Kothagudem in Andhra Pradesh SCCL produces about 10% of the country’s coal production and 76% of its production is despatched to the coal based thermal power plants in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The remaining part of SCCL’s coal production is supplied to the cement companies and other industries. In order to provide long-term financial stability in SCCL for investment in new coal projects and for increasing its production efficiently, the financial restructuring of the company has been done in June, 1999.


The Coal Mines Provident Fund Organisation is an autonomous body set up under the Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1948. The Organisation administers the Coal Mines Provident Fund Scheme, 1948, Coal Mines Family Pension Scheme, 1971 since superseded by a new scheme namely Coal Mines Pension Scheme, 1998 which was brought into force w.e.f. 31.3.98 and the Coal Mines Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme, 1976 which are all framed under the aforesaid Act.

The Fund of the Organisation is administered by a tripartite body, called the Board of Trustees, consisting of representatives of (i) the Central Government/State Governments, (ii) the employers and (iii) the employees. The Board of Trustees functions under the overall administrative control of the Department of Coal. The Board reviews the functioning of the Organisation at every meeting.

One of the most important landmarks in the history of CMPF Organisation is the introduction of Coal Mines Pension Scheme, 1998 which has come into force w.e.f. the 31st day of March, 1998. This will benefit around 8 lakhs coal workers in the country. With the introduction of Coal Mines Pension Scheme, 1998 the earstwhile Family Pension Scheme, 1971 has ceased to operate. However, the Pensioners who were drawing benefits under the erstwhile Family Pension Scheme, 1971 will continue to draw Pension under the old Coal Mines Family Pension Scheme, 1971.


The Coal Controller’s Organisation is a Subordinate Office of the Ministry of Coal & Mines, Department of Coal, having its headquarters at Kolkata and field offices at Dhanbad, Ranchi, Bilaspur and Nagpur. The Coal Controller discharges various statutory functions derived from the under noted Acts and Rules:

  • Colliery Control Order, 2000.
  • Coal Mines (Conservation & Development) Act, 1974 and Coal Mines (Conservation & Development) Rules, 1975.
  • The Collection of Statistics Act, 1953(32 of 1953) and the Collection of Statistics (Central) Rules, 1959.
  • Coal Bearing Areas (Acquisition & Development) Act, 1957( 20 of 1957).

Apart from the above, the Coal Controller has been assigned some functions under the Mines and Minerals (Regulation & Development) Act, 1957.

In addition to above statutory functions, the Coal Controller has also to discharge the following responsibilities:

  • to look after the residual work of the erstwhile Coal Board.
  • to attend to legal matters/ court cases arising out of the various statutes which the Coal Controller has been made responsible to administer.


The Office of Commissioner of Payments was set up in pursuance of the Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 and Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 for the purpose of disbursement of amounts payable to owners of coal mines or group of coal mines nationalised in 1972-73. Initially, there were two Offices of Commissioner of Payments, one for determining compensation etc. for nationalized coking coal mines and coke oven plants with headquarters at Dhanbad and another for nationalised non-coking coal mines with headquarters at Kolkata. After the work of Dhanbad Office had been disposed of substantially that Office was wound up and its residual works were transferred to the Office of the Commissioner of Payments, Kolkata. At present, Coal Controller is functioning as Commissioner of Payments.